Cortexyme Reports GAIN Trial Data Demonstrated Relationship Between Reduction of P. gingivalis Infection and Slowing of Alzheimer’s Disease Progression
In overall population, co-primary endpoints of ADAS-Cog11 and ADCS-ADL were not met
Pre-specified subgroups representing up to half of the participants based on P. gingivalis infection level showed approximately 50% slowing of cognitive decline
Clinical data validated upstream mechanism of action and benefits of targeting P. gingivalis
Additional top-line GAIN Trial results to be presented at CTAD 2021 on
The pre-specified subgroup of participants with P. gingivalis DNA detectable in saliva at baseline (PG-DS; n=242) showed a dose response, with a 57% slowing of cognitive decline as measured by ADAS-Cog11 in the 80 mg BID arm (p=0.02) and a 42% slowing in the 40 mg BID arm (p=0.07) vs. placebo. Significant benefits in this subgroup were not seen on the other co-primary, ADCS-ADL. The cognitive benefit of atuzaginstat in patients with high P. gingivalis infection was reinforced by similar results in multiple pre-specified infection related subgroups and with multiple methods of analysis. Additionally, reductions in P. gingivalis in saliva at week 24 were significantly correlated with improved outcomes at the end of the treatment period as measured by ADAS-Cog11 (p=0.0007), Clinical Dementia Rating–Sum of Boxes (CDR) (p=0.004), Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) (p=0.007), and a beneficial trend on ADCS-ADL (p=0.08).
The sub-study in periodontal disease demonstrated a trend to benefit on the primary clinical endpoint of pocket depth in the same pre-specified sub-group with P. gingivalis DNA detectable in saliva. Further results will inform the next stage of development in periodontitis and will be presented at a future scientific conference.
“Today marks a major milestone toward a comprehensive understanding of Alzheimer’s and slowing of disease progression. The evidence from the GAIN Trial advances our ability to identify the right patients, impact an upstream target, and improve patient outcomes,” said
Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity. The most common were gastrointestinal, such as diarrhea in up to 16% and nausea in 6% of participants treated with atuzaginstat vs. 3% and 2% of placebo participants, respectively. Atuzaginstat was associated with dose-related liver enzyme elevations >3X the upper limit of normal: 2% on placebo, 7% on 40 mg BID, and 15% on 80 mg BID. These elevations alone were not clinically significant, and virtually all participants were asymptomatic. Two participants in the 80 mg BID arm had concomitant bilirubin elevations without alternative explanation. Lab changes resolved while participants remained on drug or after withdrawal without any known long-term adverse effects. Atuzaginstat treated groups showed no increase in ARIA (amyloid-related imaging abnormalities), including microhemorrhage and edema, or superficial siderosis.
“The first large clinical study of a gingipain inhibitor confirmed the benefits of treatment in the appropriate population at doses that reduce P. gingivalis. Disease modification and preservation of cognition as demonstrated in the GAIN Trial provides the foundation for altering the course of Alzheimer’s,” said
In light of the GAIN Trial results and the significant unmet medical need in Alzheimer’s,
Additional Top-line GAIN Trial Results at CTAD 2021 on
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